Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
|3 Months Ended|
Mar. 31, 2022
|Accounting Policies [Abstract]|
|Summary of Significant Accounting Policies||
Note 2 - Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Basis of Presentation
The accompanying unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (“U.S. GAAP”) for interim financial information. Accordingly, they do not include all of the information and footnotes required by U.S. GAAP for complete financial statements. In the opinion of management, such statements include all adjustments (consisting only of normal recurring items) which are considered necessary for a fair presentation of the unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements of the Company as of March 31, 2022 and for the three months ended March 31, 2022 and 2021. The results of operations for the three months ended March 31, 2022 are not necessarily indicative of the operating results for the full year ending December 31, 2022 or any other period. These unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements should be read in conjunction with the audited financial statements and related disclosures as of December 31, 2021 and for the year then ended which have been previously filed.
Use of Estimates
Preparation of financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP requires management to make estimates, judgments and assumptions that affect the amounts reported in the financial statements and the amounts disclosed in the related notes to the financial statements. The Company’s significant estimates used in these financial statements include, but are not limited to, fair value calculations for equity securities, stock-based compensation, the collectability of receivables, the recoverability and useful lives of long-lived assets, and the valuation allowance related to the Company’s deferred tax assets. Certain of the Company’s estimates could be affected by external conditions, including those unique to the Company and general economic conditions. It is reasonably possible that these external factors could have an effect on the Company’s estimates and could cause actual results to differ from those estimates.
Cash and Cash Equivalents
The Company considers all highly liquid investments purchased with an original maturity of three months or less to be cash equivalents in the financial statements. As of March 31, 2022 and December 31, 2021, the Company had no cash equivalents. The Company has cash on deposits in several financial institutions which, at times, may be in excess of Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (“FDIC”) insurance limits. The Company has not experienced losses in such accounts and periodically evaluates the creditworthiness of its financial institutions. The Company reduces its credit risk by placing its cash and cash equivalents with major financial institutions.
Restricted cash was comprised of cash held as a security deposit in connection with the Company’s operating lease. See Note 8 – Commitments and Contingencies - Operating Lease for additional details.
Deferred expenses consist of labor, materials and other costs that are attributable to customer contracts that the Company has not completed its performance obligation under the contract and, as a result, has not recognized revenue. As of March 31, 2022 and December 31, 2021, deferred expenses were approximately $19,000 and $8,000, respectively.
Property and Equipment
Property and equipment are stated at cost, net of accumulated depreciation using the straight-line method over their estimated useful lives, once the asset is placed in service. Expenditures for maintenance and repairs, which do not extend the economic useful life of the related assets, are charged to operations as incurred, and expenditures which extend the economic life are capitalized. Leasehold improvements are depreciated over the lesser of their estimated useful lives or the remaining term of their respective lease. When assets are retired or otherwise disposed of, the costs and related accumulated depreciation or amortization are removed from the accounts and any gain or loss on disposal is recognized in the statement of operations for the respective period.
The Company’s long-lived assets are reviewed for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of the asset may not be recoverable. An impairment loss would be recognized when estimated future cash flows expected to result from the use of the asset and its eventual disposition are less than its carrying amount.
The estimated useful lives of property and equipment are as follows:
Deferred offering costs, which primarily consist of direct, incremental professional fees incurred in connection with a debt or equity financing, are capitalized as non-current assets on the consolidated balance sheets. Once the financing closes, the Company reclassifies such costs as either discounts to notes payable or as a reduction of proceeds received from equity transactions so that such costs are recorded as a reduction of additional paid-in capital. If the completion of a contemplated financing was deemed to be no longer probable, the related deferred offering costs would be charged to general and administrative expense in the consolidated financial statements.
In February 2016, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (the “FASB”) established Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) Topic 842, “Leases”, by issuing Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) No. 2016-02, which requires lessees to now recognize operating leases on the balance sheet and disclose key information about leasing arrangements. ASC Topic 842 was subsequently amended by ASU No. 2018-01, Land Easement Practical Expedient for Transition to Topic 842; ASU No. 2018-10, Codification Improvements to Topic 842, Leases; and ASU No. 2018-11, Targeted Improvements. The new standard establishes a right-of-use (“ROU”) model that requires a lessee to recognize a ROU asset and lease liability on the balance sheet for all leases with a term longer than 12 months. Leases will be classified as either finance or operating, with classification affecting the pattern and classification of expense recognition in the income statement. Lessor accounting under the new standard is substantially unchanged. Additional qualitative and quantitative disclosures are also required. The Company adopted the new standard on January 1, 2022 using the modified retrospective transition method, which applies the provisions of the standard at the effective date without adjusting the comparative periods presented. The Company adopted the following practical expedients and accounting policies elections related to this standard:
Adoption of this standard resulted in the recognition of operating lease right-of-use assets and corresponding lease liabilities of approximately $680,000 on the consolidated balance sheet as of January 1, 2022. Disclosures related to the amount, timing and uncertainty of cash flows arising from leases are included in Note 8, Leases.
The Company recognizes revenue under ASC Topic 606, “Revenue from Contracts with Customers” (“ASC 606”). The Company determines revenue recognition through the following steps:
A majority of the Company’s revenues are generated from contracts with customers that require it to design, develop, manufacture, test and integrate complex equipment and to provide engineering and technical services according to customer specifications. These contracts are often priced on a time and material type basis. Revenues on time and material type contracts are generally recognized in each period based on the amount billable to the customer which is based on direct labor hours expended multiplied by the contractual fixed rate per hour, plus the actual costs of materials and other direct non-labor costs.
The timing of the Company’s revenue recognition may differ from the timing of payment by its customers. A receivable is recorded when revenue is recognized prior to payment and the Company has an unconditional right to payment. Alternatively, when payment precedes the provision of the related services, the Company records deferred revenue until the performance obligations are satisfied. Contract assets are comprised of unbilled contract receivables related to revenues earned but not yet invoiced to customers.
During the three months ended March 31, 2022 and 2021, there was no revenue recognized from performance obligations satisfied (or partially satisfied) in previous periods.
The Company generated revenue from government contracts that reimburse the Company for certain allowable costs for funded projects. Such projects were completed in 2021. For contracts with government agencies, when the Company has concluded that it is the principal in conducting the research and development expenses and where the funding arrangement is considered central to the Company’s ongoing operations, the Company classifies the recognized funding received as revenue. The Company has determined that revenue generated from government grants is outside the scope of ASC 606 and, as a result, the Company recognizes revenue upon incurring qualifying, reimbursable expenses. During the three months ended March 31, 2022 and 2021, the Company recognized approximately $0 and $225,000, respectively, of grant revenue.
Research and Development
Research and development expenses are charged to operations as incurred.
The Company measures the cost of services received in exchange for an award of equity instruments based on the fair value of the award. The fair value of the award is measured on the grant date. The fair value amount is then recognized over the period during which services are required to be provided in exchange for the award, usually the vesting period. Upon the exercise of an award, the Company issues new shares of common stock out of its authorized shares.
The risk-free interest rate was determined from the implied yields from U.S. Treasury zero-coupon bonds with a remaining term consistent with the expected term of the instrument being valued. Option forfeitures are accounted for at the time of occurrence. The expected term used is the estimated period of time that warrants or options are expected to be outstanding. The Company utilizes the “simplified” method to develop an estimate of the expected term of “plain vanilla” employee options. For investor warrants and non-employee options, the expected term used is the contractual life of the instrument being valued. The Company does not yet have a trading history to support its historical volatility calculations. Accordingly, the Company is utilizing an expected volatility figure based on a review of the historical volatility of comparable entities over a period of time equivalent to the expected life of the instrument being valued.
Basic net (loss) income per share of common stock is computed by dividing net (loss) income by the weighted average number of vested shares of common stock outstanding during the period. Diluted net income per share of common stock is computed by dividing net income by the weighted average number of common and dilutive common-equivalent shares outstanding during each period.
The following shares were excluded from the calculation of weighted average dilutive shares of common stock because their inclusion would have been anti-dilutive:
The Company recognizes deferred tax assets and liabilities for the expected future tax consequences of items that have been included or excluded in the financial statements or tax returns. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are determined on the basis of the difference between the tax basis of assets and liabilities and their respective financial reporting amounts (“temporary differences”) at enacted tax rates in effect for the years in which the temporary differences are expected to reverse. The Company has recorded a full valuation allowance against its deferred tax assets for all periods, due to the uncertainty of future utilization.
The Company utilizes a recognition threshold and measurement process for financial statement recognition and measurement of a tax position taken or expected to be taken in a tax return. Management has evaluated and concluded that there were no material uncertain tax positions requiring recognition in the Company’s financial statements as of March 31, 2022 and December 31, 2021. The Company does not expect any significant changes in its unrecognized tax benefits within twelve months of the reporting date. The Company’s policy is to classify assessments, if any, for tax related interest as interest expense and penalties as selling, general and administrative expenses in the consolidated statements of operations.
Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates
Our consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America. The preparation of these financial statements requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and the disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. We base our estimates and judgments on historical experience, current economic and industry conditions and on various other factors that are believed to be reasonable under the circumstances. This forms the basis for making judgments about the carrying values of assets and liabilities that are not readily apparent from other sources. Actual results may differ from these estimates under different assumptions or conditions. We believe that full consideration has been given to all relevant circumstances that we may be subject to, and the consolidated financial statements accurately reflect our best estimate of the results of operations, financial position and cash flows for the periods presented.
On an ongoing basis, we evaluate our estimates and judgments for all assets and liabilities, including those related to the fair value of stock options for determination of the stock-based compensation expense. The amount of stock based compensation has been a significant expense over the three months ended March 31, 2022 and 2021. The assumptions that go into the Black-Scholes calculation are the major driver of the calculation of the fair value of the stock options at the date of grant. The major assumption of volatility is based upon historical data, and the majority of the other assumptions used in the Black Scholes computation is based upon the terms of the specific stock option grant.
Revenues and cost of sales are important metrics in demonstrating the completion of projects and shipment of products to customers, and the profitability of such revenues. Accordingly, revenue recognition is a critical accounting policy. The timing of the Company’s revenue recognition may differ from the timing of payment by its customers. A receivable is recorded when revenue is recognized prior to payment and the Company has an unconditional right to payment. Alternatively, when payment precedes the provision of the related services, the Company records deferred revenue until the performance obligations are satisfied. Contract assets are comprised of unbilled contract receivables related to revenues earned but not yet invoiced to customers. We review the status of each project at each period end and determine whether the earnings process is complete and the revenue and costs of sales should be recognized.
Recently Issued Accounting Standards
In June 2016, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) issued Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) No. 2016-13, “Financial Instruments - Credit Losses”. This update requires immediate recognition of management’s estimates of current expected credit losses (“CECL”). Under the prior model, losses were recognized only as they were incurred. The new model is applicable to all financial instruments that are not accounted for at fair value through net income. The standard is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2022 for public entities qualifying as small reporting companies. Early adoption is permitted. The Company is currently assessing the impact of this update on our consolidated financial statements and do not anticipate a significant impact.
The entire disclosure for all significant accounting policies of the reporting entity.
Reference 1: http://www.xbrl.org/2003/role/disclosureRef